Oliver Cromwell was made Lord Protector of Ireland on this date in 1653. Following the English Civil War, his victory in overthrowing the Stuart monarchy and the execution of King James I, English Parliament declared Cromwell “Lord Protector” in England’s first attempt at a state ruled government. He held this position for five years (1653-58) of the eleven years in which England remained a republican Commonwealth government. Cromwell had a detrimental effect on Ireland in these years. He led an invasion of Ireland from 1649-1650. The public practice of Catholicism was banned and all Catholic owned land was confiscated.